Search

Four methods of emergency communication

Date:Jan 29, 2021

Emergency communication is a communication method that can temporarily and flexibly provide emergency services after emergency times such as guaranteeing combat readiness, emergency rescue, disaster relief, terrorist incidents, and communication network failures.


Emergency communications must first ensure command communications, usually wirelessly, requiring rapid deployment of communications networks to provide communications support. The means of emergency communication mainly include the following:


Excavate the potential of existing network equipment


In emergency situations, there are often sudden and large traffic in local areas and concentrated periods. It is the key to maximize the use of existing equipment.


(1) GSM wireless opening half rate: the maximum number of users can be admitted when a part of the voice quality is lost;


(2) 3G wireless equipment enables multi-carrier frequency: most manufacturers' equipment can realize multi-carrier on a single board, but only a single carrier is turned on when it is actually turned on due to procurement problems, and it can all be turned on in an emergency;


(3) Expand all hardware capabilities and improve equipment processing capabilities: use spare parts, allocation and other methods to expand the processing capabilities of existing hardware platforms to the maximum (including the Internet, bearer networks, local switches, long-distance switches, gateway offices, wireless devices, etc. Wait);


(4) Turn off all software license restrictions, or temporarily expand licenses: the maximum processing restrictions on the number of users, CE, codewords, etc. should be removed. In order to ensure that people with mobile phones can make calls, consider turning off the verification of user balances by the account system, or even turning off user authentication on mobile networks;


(5) Restrictive measures: In order to ensure normal communication, for the wireless network, the 2G network can consider turning off the function of the data network and allocating all channels to voice. The 3G network can reduce the user rate to 512Kb/s. Try to improve the efficiency of network usage instead of perception. In addition, the protection of the extreme processing capacity of the equipment is also extremely important, and there should be no equipment failure due to overload.


Maritime satellites (each county can be equipped with two in the future, there will be no contact failure)


Inmarsat (Inmarsat), as a kind of satellite communication system, has become the main communication method in the disaster-stricken area due to its convenience, reliability, freedom from local ground conditions, global coverage, all-weather, portable, and mobile. Fields such as liaison and the delivery of news information have played an irreplaceable role.


The L frequency band used by maritime satellites is commonly known as the golden frequency band. Although its communication cost is expensive and it is irreplaceable in mobile satellite communications, it is no longer a problem for China with its rapid economic development. In emergencies applications, the ability to maintain moving video images, data communications, and voice communications can greatly improve disaster relief effects.


Emergency communication vehicle


The emergency communication vehicle is mainly loaded with 2G/3G and antenna equipment in the emergency vehicle. It is used for the widespread gathering of people due to major events (such as the Olympic Games, large outdoor parties, etc.) or sudden incidents that cause communication interruption in a certain area (such as mobile antennas in a certain area) The tower is damaged) emergency communications.


There are three usual transmission methods for emergency communication vehicles, namely optical transmission, microwave transmission and satellite transmission.


The communication equipment in the emergency communication vehicle usually includes several sets of RNC (BSC) and Node-B (BTS) equipment, ancillary transmission equipment, power guarantee equipment and an antenna feeder system that can be raised and lowered.


Emergency communication vehicles can usually meet important conferences and exhibitions in various provinces and various festivals and other communication guarantees, natural disasters, emergency and stability maintenance, and wartime preparedness guarantees.


Ultrashort wave radio station


Ultrashort wave radio stations (radio stations) use a wide frequency range, involving multiple frequency bands such as 150 MHz, 200 MHz, 350 MHz, and 400 MHz. Because the public communication network is extremely complex, it tends to be vulnerable to disasters. The ultrashort wave radio communication method has clear voice, strong anti-interference ability, the radio is small and portable, and has strong mobile communication capabilities. It does not rely on wired and optical fibers, and is especially suitable for disaster relief and emergency. Used at the scene of the incident.


Ultrashort wave communication is basically characterized by "line-of-sight transmission" with only certain diffraction and reflection capabilities. Therefore, if the area to be covered is large, a radio relay station can be appropriately selected for technical support. It is usually necessary to select a commanding height such as a high mountain and high building for "radio relay relay ".


Normally maintaining the radio emergency response ultrashort wave relay station may become the most important means of communication in the event of a major disaster.